Electromagnetic Field – Scientific Articles

A selection of articles relating to treatment with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields.

1. Analysis of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Magnetostimulation in Selected Diseases

Aleksander Sieroń, Karolina Sieroń-Stoltny, Tomasz Biniszkiewicz, Agala Stanek, Tomasz Stoltny, Katarzyna Biniszkiewicz
Journal: Acta Bio-Optica et Informatica Medica, Vol 7. 2001 pp.1-8
The authors analysed anonymous inquiries filled by patients after having completed magnetostimulation characterized with maximal magnetic field induction up to 45µT. The analysed group consisted of 69% patients with disorders of movement system, 25% patients with neurological disorders and per 1% of patients with neurosis, insomnia, night urination, asthma, skin allergies and paranasal sinusitis. Improvement or retreat of complaints was noted by 89-100% of patients with disorders of movement system (particularly in subgroup with osteoarthritis) and by 90-99% of patients with neurological disease (particularly in subgroup with parkinosnian syndromes). The main evidence of improvement was the diminution or retreat of pain and improvement of range of movements in painful joints and paretic limbs.
The study of over 3,000 patients covered a variety of diseases. Those relating to arthritis, (1,296 patients) are presented in the excerpt below:

Subjective evaluation of the efficacy of the treatment by the patients completing questionnaires suffering from movement impairments after conclusion of magnetostimulation treatment.

2. Estimation of Clinical Efficacy of Magnetic & Light Therapy – Device for Magnetostimulation Connected with Light Energy in the Treatment of Degenerative and Inflammatory Diseases of Joints

Prof. Aleksander Sieroń, Balneologia Polska, vol XLVI, 2004, pp.42-58
The aim of this study was to estimate a clinical efficacy of Magnetic & Light Therapy – device for magnetostimulation connected with light energy used as monotherapy in the treatment of patients suffering from degenerative and inflammatory diseases of joints, and the comparison of different magnetic-light applicators using red (wavelength: 840-860mm) and infrared (wavelength: 625-635mm) light generated by diodes LED in the treatment of particular diseases. In this trial 32 patients of both sex with pain syndromes in the course of coxarthrosis (16 patients), gonarthritis (8 patients) and rheumatoid arthritis of carpometacarpal articulation of thumb (8 patients) were treated. In the therapy elliptic magnetic-light applicators were used generating variable magnetic field with saw-like shape of impulse and mean induction value of 53,4 μT as well as light with energy density of 8,18 and 1,64 J/cm2, respectively. The therapeutic cycle consisted of 10 daily exposures lasting 12 minutes each (program – P2, mode of application – M2, intensity – 6). As a result of performed procedures in all diseases a distinct reduction of pain intensity estimated by means of Husskinson’s visual-analog scale VAS persisting in case of superficially located joints also in 5th day after the end of exposure cycle was observed. The strongest and the most persistent analgesic effect was obtained using magnetic-light applicators generating infrared light, especially in case of gonarthritis and arthritis of carpometacarpal articulation of thumb.

3. Estimation Of Therapeutic Efficacy And Tolerance of Magnetostimulation in the Treatment of Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Prof. Aleksander Sieroń, Balneologia Polska, vol XLVI, 2004, pp.86-9
The aim the study was to estimate therapeutic efficacy of magnetostimulation with routine big flat applicator and additional elliptic applicators for local use in the treatment of children suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis. 33 children aged 4 to 18 years with various course of a disease and location of inflammatory process in single or numerous joints were treated. As a results of a cycle of 14 everyday exposures (programme: P3, mode of application M2, time of single exposure: 12 minutes daily, intensity of field increasing in succeeding days from 0,5 to 7) a significant clinical improvement was obtained in 96.9% of patients, particularly in form of decrease in pain intensity during motion of affected joints (84.3% of patients), improvement of mobility of all joints (76.8% of patients), reduction of dimension of joint oedema (46.6% of patients) and normalization of temperature in periarticular tissues (68% of patients). Decrease in subjective pain sensation in affected joints estimated in Huskisson’s visual-analog scale VAS of 59.6-89.5%, and shortening of morning stiffness duration of 50-84% was observed, depending on the form of the disease. The best results were obtained in patients with location of inflammatory process in single joints, especially in case of subacute and acute course of a disease. On the basis of obtained results it was concluded that magnetostimulation with use of Viofor JPS System could make a valuable, assisting method in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, due to high therapeutic efficacy, functionality of particular applicators and good tolerance of exposures by patients.

4. Use Of Variable Magnetic Field Of Low Frequency In Degenerative Knee Joint Disease

Ewa Boerner, Marzena Koblanska, Ewa Biec, Barbara Ratajczak, Ewa Demczuk-Wlodarczuk, Aneta Demidas
Jounal: Acta Bio-Optica et Informatica Medica, Vol 9. 2003 pp.131-135
The work deals with application of magnetotherapy for treatment of degenerative disease of knee joint. It was statistically proved that this kind of treatment is beneficial for lowering of pain level, increases the locomotory ability and decreases the swollen tissue.
Gonarthritis is one of the most frequent pathologies of knee. Degenerative joint disease is the most prevalent disease of motor apparatus. First, non-clinical changes may occur in the second or third decade of life. 35% of people aged 45-65 years suffer from the disease and 60-70% of people over 65 years old. Gonarthritis has third place after coxarthrosis and degenerative changes of spine. It affects 5% of population, in 75% of cases are women. The disease makes women unable to work and often disable. Gonarthritis is caused by repeated mechanical injuries, changes connected with strain put on the joint, which may be connected with strain put on the joint, which may be connected with age, sport injuries, excessive body weight or anomalies in body[1]. Patients with degenerative changes are treated in a complex way and, apart from anti-inflammatory action, various of pain-relieving agents are administered [2]. Physiotherapy plays significant role in analgesic treatment. The aim of physiotherapy is to reduce pain, muscle tone, tissue oedema and to prepare patient for kinesitherapy aimed at sustaining or restoring proper mobility in joints affected by the disease.
More and more frequently magnetotherapy is used [3]. Treatment with magnetic field is a natural, biological form of therapy. It has been known since ancient times. Scientific bases for this kind of treatment appeared in the 20th century. The properties of magnetic fields, their effect on human organism were studied and better therapeutic devices are constructed [4,5]. The purpose of this study was to assess efficacy of magnetic field of low frequency in gonarthritis.
Materials & Methods
The subjects of the study were patients from Wrocław’s outpatient clinic suffering from degenerative knee joint disease involving both knee joints. Patients were not subjected to any other therapy during treatment. The research group consisted of 30 patients aged 56-65 (22 women and 8 men). Most of them with pain and limited mobility in knee joints. Characteristics of the group are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Characteristics of the group
Before therapy, history of the patients was taken: first name, surname, age, sex, duration of the disease. All patients were subjected to the procedures with magnetic field of low frequency. Apparatus emitting sinusoidal impulses, 1-10 mT, frequency 20-50 Hz, was used in the procedures. During the procedures, first, small intensities were used, then, the intensities were gradually increased to maximal dose. Applicator in shape of a spool with 315mm diameter adjusted to the shape of the area subjected to the procedure. Each procedure lasted 20 minutes. 15 procedures were recommended. First 10 procedures were carried out every day and the following 5 procedures were carried out every second day. Each patient had procedure carried out at the same time of the day. All patients were examined before the therapy and just after its completion. The examinations involved the area of two lower limbs. Obtained results were statistically analysed.

  • Measurement of the range of flexion motion in knee joints.
  • Measurement of circumference of both limbs at three levels, with precision to 0.5 cm: on the level of knee crevice, on the of medial head of quadriceps muscle of thigh, on the level of lateral head of quadriceps of thigh.

Pain was assessed on Domžał’s modified 10 degree numeric scale [2], where 0 means lack of pain, 10 means severe pain.
The results of the assessment of efficacy of therapy with magnetic field in degenerative knee joint disease as far as pain, range of mobility and circumference are concerned, on the level of knee joint, lateral head and medial head of quadriceps muscle of thigh before and after the therapy are shown in table 2 and 3.
Median value indicates that 50% of studied patients experienced before therapy chronic pain, increasing in severity with every change of position. Whereas, after therapy, in 75% of studied cases there was a reduction of severity of pain to the level of slight pain occurring every day with small intervals. Comparative analysis indicates that therapy has statistically significant effect on both lower limbs (Table2).
Analysis of the range of movement in knee joint in sagittal plane before and after therapy indicates significant reduction of limitation in flexion. Mean values of the range of movement indicate statistically significant increase in the range of flexion movement after therapy (Table 3). Also values of circumferences measured at the level of knee joint crevice of both lower limbs indicate significant reduction of circumferences after procedure with variable magnetic field. It may suggest reduction of oedema and positive effects of the therapy in degenerative knee joint disease. Calculated mean values of circumferences of both limbs at the level of medial head of quadriceps muscle of thigh indicate significant reduction of their circumference after therapy. No statistically significant variance was found in measurements of circumference of lower left limb before and after therapy at the level of lateral head of quadriceps muscle of thigh (Table 3). It can be assumed that it was a result of reduction of oedema and not wasting of the mass of quadriceps muscle of thigh.
Research studies carried out by Sieroń and his co-workers [7-9] indicate that that there is a wide spectrum of effects that magnetic field exerts on processes of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. It was also found that due to increased emission of endogenic opiates, magnetic fields alleviate pain. It was found that in treatment of degenerative joint disease, therapy with magnetic field is one of the most beneficial physiotherapeutic methods. On the basis of conducted study, the researches came to the conclusion that magnetic field of low frequency has positive effect on alleviation of pain. It was also noticed by Sieroń and Krawczyk-Krupka [6] who claim that therapy with magnetic field of low frequency has positive effect on reduction of pain and, thereby, is an alternative method for analgesic pharmacological agents.
Table 2. Statistical characteristics of the level of pain and comparison between the values of pain (Wilcoxon’s test) before and after therapy with magnetic field
With bold letters-significance of difference at the level p 0.05
Table 3. Statistical characteristics of values of range of mobility and circumference before and after therapy and their comparison using t-Student test
With bold letters is written significance of difference in values at level p 0.05
Increase in the range of movement in studied knee joints was probably connected with the fact that pain was reduced, what contributes to improvement in mobility and to maintaining necessary range of movement. Magnetic field of low frequency has also anti-inflammatory effect and it can also contribute to reduction of pain and improvement in mobility joints, as well as to reduction of oedema. Observed significant statistical differences in measurements of circumference indicate that it is an effective anti-inflammatory therapy. Also other authors [7,8,9] draw attention to the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oedema effects of magnetotherapy in treatment of degenerative changes. Many studies [2,10] confirm that there is reduction of pain, improvement of mobility in joints in patients suffering from osteoporosis after this therapy. The results obtained in the study are compatible with reports of other authors [5,6,7,8] who confirm that magnetic field of low frequency is effective in treatment of gonarthritis. The fact that magnetotherapy has become a prevalent physiotherapeutic method is a confirmation that it is a right choice of therapy of people with degenerative knee joint disease.
Therapy with magnetic field of low frequency has significant effect on reduction of the level of severity of pain in patients with degenerative knee joint disease.
Therapy with magnetic field of low frequency contributes to the increase in the range of movement of joints. Reduction of circumference in the area of knee joints of patients subjected to magnetotherapy indicates that oedema was reduced as a result of therapy.

5. Evaluation of Magnetostimulation Effectiveness in Physiotherapy

Woldanska-Okonska M, Czernicki J. – PMID: 15181749 PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE
The anonymous questionnaires which had been filled in by patients were analysed after the end of the magnetostimulation applied with Viofor JPS. The applicator in form of a mattress with maximum induction 45uT was used. In the analysed group of 1742 patients, 5% pf patients suffered from rheumatoid arthritis, 16% from central nervous system illnesses, 9% from injuries, 1.5% from allergies, 2% from infections, 5.4% from vessel illnesses, 1% from skin illnesses. 0.5% of the patients used monotherapy. 8% suffered from radicular symptoms, 30.7% from pseudoradicular symptoms, 17.4% from arthrosis, and 3.4% patients suffered from migraines and headaches. The complete abatement of complaints or the improvement was noted in 95.5% of patients, no improvement in 4.3% and 0.2% of patients became worse – 82% of deterioration patients were the ones that suffered from infections. The strongest analgesic action and the most frequent abatement were noted in patients after injuries and patients with headaches.

6. Magnetostimulation in Pain Medicine

Ewa Boerner, Marzena Koblanska, Ewa Biec, Barbara Ratajczak, Ewa Demczuk-Wlodarczuk, Aneta Demidas
Jounal: Acta Bio-Optica et Informatica Medica, Vol 9. 2003 pp.131-135
Physical management in terms of analgesic action is used by means of several mechanical and physical methods. Slow alternating magnetic field magnetostimulation with very low magnetic induction is one of very interesting methods. Advantageous biological effects of these magnetic fields acting on live organism, broaden its use in physiotherapy and caused its use in pain medicine. In the publications there are shown the results of investigation indicating increase of blood flow and decrease of muscle tension during the magnetostimulation. These effects caused usage of magnetostimulation for managing the pain syndromes common in the course of many nervous, bone-and-joint, blood and metabolic diseases. Occurrence of the special resonance frequencies connected with the acting of alternating magnetic fields on biological objects, is a background of the ionic cyclotron resonance theory. Polish scientists, authors of this method, conducted comprehensive biotechnical and clinical analysis of the original Viofor JPS device in which one can use electrodynamic effect of alternating magnetic field on body ions currents, ionic cyclotron resonance of cations and anions of the body fluids and magnetomechanic action of magnetic fields on particles with non-compensated magnetic spins. Because of theses effects it come to changes in distribution of ions in intra- and extracellular compartments and differentiations of quiescent potentials. These cause advantageous increase of ion transport in cellular membranes and organellas. 5 years experience of the authors with managing the chronic pain patients with Viofor JPS device, was presented in short review of acquired analgesic effects, emphasising algesiologic action of magnetostimulation.

7. Report on the Use of Magnetic Stimulation Beds in Substance Use Rehabilitation

The UK government-funded Skipton (Yorkshire, UK) Drugs and alcohol rehabilitation centre, run by Malcolm Bray, is one of the most successful units in the country. They started using low induction electromagnetic stimulation therapy back in 2004 and use it to this day as a vital part of their everyday therapy for assisting in the rehabilitation of people with drug and alcohol dependencies. Malcolm Bray is currently writing a paper on his findings based on a three year usage in the centre. This report will be submitted to the relevant national bodies for evaluation with a view of expanding this effective form of therapy across the UK.
Below you will find Malcolm Bray’s report based on the first 12 months of usage in the centre. This again shows clearly that it has been used successfully in a government-funded unit and that it offers conclusive proof of the system offering benefits to people being treated for addictions.
Report on the use of Magnetic Stimulation Beds Within A Substance use Rehabilitation Agency, June 2005 – Written by Malcolm Bray of CODA (Craven Organisation for Drugs and Alcohol)
[Malcolm Bray has been working in the drugs field since 1977 and has worked with both residential rehabilitation and street agencies during that time. He holds a diploma in counselling and has a Master Practitioner certificate in NLP. He also gained a qualification in Social Work in 1983.]
We have now been using this form of therapy for almost one year within the Substance Use Rehabilitation Agency that I work for. The Magnetic Stimulation beds have been used to assist our work in a number of ways:

  • Service users have said that withdrawal symptoms have been greatly or completely removed after a treatment with the bed.
  • This agency has used the bed successfully for opiate users, alcohol users, individuals with benzodiazepine problems and for those people with issues relating to stimulant drugs.
  • We have seen the bed work really effectively in addressing the pain that some individuals have experienced from Deep Vein Thrombosis.
  • As you will know, withdrawal and abstinence often unmask symptoms of depression and anxiety and the Viofor bed acts to enable the individual to change their emotional state without reliance on prescription drugs and with none of the unpleasant side effects that these drugs cause.
  • Individuals often have trouble sleeping and we have found that the bed is of immense use in helping induce sleep for service users and again it is a real and positive alternative to habit forming tranquillisers.
  • Service users have commented on the analgesic qualities of the magnetic stimulation bed after undergoing therapy.

Many service users have talked to us about the unpleasant emotional states they find themselves in either as a result of their history, or as an effect of their ongoing drug use. For all of us in the rehabilitation field, the answer does not lie completely with the development of better or more efficient drugs – cures do not exclusively come out of bottles. One view, when looking at emotions, suggests that they are – at least to some extent – the result of neurochemistry and elaborate electrical activities and pathways of the brain.
One way of getting service users to gain some control over their lives is to alter that chemical composition and re-orient that circuitry. The Viofor bed has helped achieve this by offering a viable and effective alternative to the use of prescribed drugs.The magnetic stimulating qualities of the bed have proved a strong adjunct to the counseling and psychotherapy approaches used at this agency in aiding the development of coping skills and in dealing with difficult emotions.
All in all, I feel that this one year experiment with magnetic stimulation equipment has been an extremely useful therapy that this agency will continue to use.

8. Exposure to A Specific Pulsed Low-Frequency Magnetic Field: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study of Effects in Pain Ratings in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Fibromyalgia Patients

Shupak NM, McKay JC, Nielson WR, Rollman GB, Prato FS, Thomas AW. Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph’s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2
Pain Res Manag. 2006 Summer;11(2):85-90. PMID: 16770449 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Specific pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to induce analgesia (antinociception) in snails, rodents and healthy human volunteers.
The effect of specific PEMF exposure on pain and anxiety ratings was investigated in two patient populations. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design was used.
The present study investigated the effects of an acute 30 min magnetic field exposure (less than or equal to 400 microTpk; less than 3 kHz) on pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ], visual analogue scale [VAS]) and anxiety (VAS) ratings in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=13; mean age 52 years) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients (n=18; mean age 51 years) who received either the PEMF or sham exposure treatment.
A repeated measures analysis revealed a significant pre-post-testing by condition interaction for the MPQ Pain Rating Index total for the RA patients, F(1,11)=5.09, P<0.05, estimate of effect size = 0.32, power = 0.54. A significant pre-post-effect for the same variable was present for the FM patients, F(1,15)=16.2, P<0.01, estimate of effect size = 0.52, power =0.96. Similar findings were found for MPQ subcomponents and the VAS (pain). There was no significant reduction in VAS anxiety ratings pre- to post-exposure for either the RA or FM patients.
These findings provide some initial support for the use of PEMF exposure in reducing pain in chronic pain populations and warrants continued investigation into the use of PEMF exposure for short-term pain relief.

9. Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

Thamsborg G, Florescu A, Oturai P, Fallentin E, Tritsaris K, Dissing S. Department of Geriatri and Rheumatology, Glostrup Hospital, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark PMID: 15979009 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
The investigation aimed at determining the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
The trial consisted of 2h daily treatment 5 days per week for 6 weeks in 83 patients with knee OA. Patient evaluations were done at baseline and after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment. A follow-up evaluation was done 6 weeks after treatment. Activities of daily living (ADL), pain and stiffness were evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) questionnaire.
Within group analysis revealed a significant improvement in ADL, stiffness and pain in the PEMF-treated group at all evaluations. In the control group there was no effect on ADL after 2 weeks and a weak significance was seen after 6 and 12 weeks. Significant effects were seen on pain at all evaluations and on stiffness after 6 and 12 weeks. Between group analysis did not reveal significant improvements over time. Analysis of ADL score for the PEMF-treated group revealed a significant correlation between less improvement and increasing age. Analysis of patients <65 years using between group analysis revealed a significant improvement for stiffness on treated knee after 2 weeks, but this effect was not observed for ADL and pain.
Applying between group analysis we were unable to demonstrate a beneficial symptomatic effect of PEMF in the treatment of knee OA in all patients. However, in patients <65 years of age there is significant and beneficial effect of treatment related to stiffness.

10. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Articular Hyaline Cartilage: Review of Experimental and Clinical Studies

Fini M, Giavaresi G, Carpi A, Nicolini A, Setti S, Giardino R. Experimental Surgery Department, Research Institute Codivilla-Putti-Rizzoli, Orthopedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy. PMID: 16084055 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disorder of the musculoskeletal system and is a consequence of mechanical and biological events that destabilize tissue homeostasis in articular joints. Controlling chondrocyte death and apoptosis, function, response to anabolic and catabolic stimuli, matrix synthesis or degradation and inflammation is the most important target of potential chondroprotective treatment, aimed to retard or stabilize the progression of OA. Although many drugs or substances have been recently introduced for the treatment of OA, the majority of them relieve pain and increase function, but do not modify the complex pathological processes that occur in these tissues. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have a number of well-documented physiological effects on cells and tissues including the upregulation of gene expression of members of the transforming growth factor beta super family, the increase in glycosaminoglycan levels, and an anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, there is a strong rationale supporting the in vivo use of biophysical stimulation with PEMFs for the treatment of OA. In the present paper some recent experimental in vitro and in vivo data on the effect of PEMFs on articular cartilage were reviewed. These data strongly support the clinical use of PEMFs in OA patients.

11. The Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the Treatment of Cervical Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial

Sutbeyaz ST, Sezer N, Koseoglu BF. Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Education and Research Hospital, Turk ocagi S No: 3 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey. PMID: 15986086 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) on pain, range of motion (ROM) and functional status in patients with cervical osteoarthritis (COA). Thirty-four patients with COA were included in a randomized, double-blind study. PEMF was administrated to the whole body using a mat 1.8 x 0.6 m in size. During the treatment, the patients lay on the mat for 30 min per session, twice a day for 3 weeks. Pain levels in the PEMF group decreased significantly after therapy (p<0.001), but no change was observed in the placebo group. The active ROM, paravertebral muscle spasm and neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) scores improved significantly after PEMF therapy (p<0.001) but no change was observed in the sham group. The results of this study are promising, in that PEMF treatment may offer a potential therapeutic adjunct to current COA therapies in the future.

12. Optimization Of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy For Management Of Arthritis In Rats

Kumar VS, Kumar DA, Kalaivani K, Gangadharan AC, Raju KV, Thejomoorthy P, Manohar BM, Puvanakrishnan R. – Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Madras Veterinary College, Vepery, Chennai, India. PMID: 15887257 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Studies were undertaken to find out the effects of low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) in rats, a widely used model for screening potential therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIA was induced by an intradermal injection of a suspension of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (500 mug/0.1 ml) into the right hind paw of male Wistar rats. This resulted in swelling, loss of body weight, increase in paw volume as well as the activity of lysosomal enzymes viz., acid phosphatase, cathepsin D, and beta-glucuronidase and significant radiological and histological changes. PEMF therapy for arthritis involved optimization of three significant factors, viz., frequency, intensity, and duration; and the waveform used is sinusoidal. The use of factorial design in lieu of conventional method resulted in the development of an ideal combination of these factors. PEMF was applied using a Fransleau-Braunbeck coil system. A magnetic field of 5 Hz x 4 muT x 90 min was found to be optimal in lowering the paw edema volume and decreasing the activity of lysosomal enzymes. Soft tissue swelling was shown to be reduced as evidenced by radiology. Histological studies confirmed reduction in inflammatory cells infiltration, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of cells lining synovial membrane. PEMF was also shown to have a membrane stabilizing action by significantly inhibiting the rate of release of beta-glucuronidase from lysosomal rich and sub-cellular fractions. The results indicated that PEMF could be developed as a potential therapy in the treatment of arthritis in humans. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.>
Further Articles

13. Impairment of depth perception in multiple sclerosis is improved by treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1999;98(1-2):83-94.

14. Serotonergic neuronal atrophy with synaptic inactivation, not axonal degeneration, are the main hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1998 Jul;95(1-2):133-40.

15. Yawning and stretching–a behavioral syndrome associated with transcranial application of electromagnetic fields in multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1998 Jul;95(1-2):107-13.

16. Treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields normalizes the latency of the visual evoked response in a multiple sclerosis patient with optic atrophy. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1998 Apr;93(3-4):239-50.

17. Treatment with electromagnetic fields improves dual-task performance (talking while walking) in multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1997 Nov;92(1-2):95-102.

18. Therapeutic effects of alternating current pulsed electromagnetic fields in multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. J Altern Complement Med. 1997 Winter;3(4):365-86.

19. Role of the pineal gland in multiple sclerosis: a hypothesis. Sandyk R. J Altern Complement Med. 1997 Fall;3(3):267-90.

20. Treatment with electromagnetic fields reverses the long-term clinical course of a patient with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1997 Aug;90(3-4):177-85.

21. Resolution of sleep paralysis by weak electromagnetic fields in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1997 Aug;90(3-4):145-57.

22. Influence of the pineal gland on the expression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: possible relationship to the aquisition of multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jun;90(1-2):129-33.

23. Immediate recovery of cognitive functions and resolution of fatigue by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1997 Jun;90(1-2):59-74.

24. Serotonergic neuronal sprouting as a potential mechanism of recovery in multiple sclerosis. Sandyk R. Int J Neurosci. 1999 Mar;97(1-2):131-8